About 25% of people have dental-cranio-maxillofacial deformities or asymmetries in the structure of their face. It may be due to problems of different kinds in any of the elements that compose it: jaw, maxilla, zygomatic bones, nose orbital regions, teeth and soft tissues. One of the main disadvantages of these malformations is the malocclusion, in which the bite is not correctly aligned, beyond the margins considered normal. This anomaly is a cause of difficulties in chewing, swallowing or breathing, and can lead to other pathologies such as temporomandibular joint pain or headaches. It should also be mentioned that sleep apnea can be generated due to bad breath. Therefore, orthognathic surgery involves performing surgical interventions to correct the position of the different components of the face, especially the jaw. Among the most indicated pathologies to carry out a treatment are the following:
- Asymmetry jaw, which occurs if the jaw and chin are deviated in relation to the vertical axis of the face.
- Deformities on the lips or on the palate.
- Delayed or advanced jaw, which causes similar difficulties, and also swallowing.
- Delayed or advanced upper jaw with respect to the chin, which can cause joint or respiratory problems.
- Open bite, which occurs when upper and lower teeth do not contact when closing the mouth, causing irregularities in chewing.
All of them, at the same time, influence the final formation of the factions. It is common for some of the deficiencies to be resolved by orthodontic treatments, provided that they can act through the position of the teeth. But in some cases, orthodontics alone is not enough, which makes complementary or exclusive surgery necessary. On the other hand, the advances in this area of oral and maxillofacial surgery. In particular the development of digital diagnostic techniques has allowed us to deepen in treatments that were previously not considered so indispensable due to their fundamentally aesthetic character. It’s also due to the greater complexity in addressing them without the support of digital technology. However, progressively clearer imbalances in the face that, together with their effects on health and functionality, also affect the harmony of the face. Therefore, it can impact the patients’ self-esteem and their capacity for social interaction.
Today we know that facial features considered as “natural”, but aesthetically imbalanced, can be improved thanks to orthognathic surgery. Therefore, we find a greater number of patients who are encouraged to undergo this procedure, which must be chaired by a rigorous diagnosis, according to the unique characteristics of the patient and always under the medical criteria of the specialist. Regarding the characteristics of the surgery, it should be noted that it requires hospitalization. However, this is usually a few days after the intervention. As it works through the mouth, it leaves no visible scars. The postoperative period, in general terms, is not very long either. After about two weeks he returns to normal life. However, they are issues that depend on the magnitude of the intervention and whether one or more elements that make up the face are involved.